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Major Requirements

Economics Course Requirements

Twelve credits are necessary to complete the major (eleven ECON courses plus a MATH course). 

Courses taken Credit/D/Fail, Residential College Seminars and First Year Seminars (ECON 001/002) may not be counted toward the requirements of the major.

Apart from the math requirement, at most one non-ECON course can count toward the requirements for the economics major, subject to approval of the DUS, and can only serve as an elective. For a course to be approved, it must have sufficient relevance to the economics discipline. You can find more information about related course credit here.

To earn Distinction in the major a student must write a senior thesis earning a grade of A- or better and receive A- or better in 3/4 of the courses that are counted toward the major (not including introductory microeconomics, introductory macroeconomics, the math requirement or courses taken outside of Yale). Economics courses taken beyond the requirements of the major are counted toward the Distinction calculation.

Below is a summary of the major requirements.

Introductory Courses

Math Calculus

Math 110/111*,  Math 112, Math 115, Math 116, ENAS 151, or preferably, Math 118 or Math 120.

Math 118 and Math 120 are recommended because they emphasize economics applications.

Any Math course higher than 120 can also be used to fulfill the math requirement.

*Math 110 and Math 111 together count as one course towards the economics major. 

Micro

Econ 108 or 110 or 115

Note 1: You can place out of introductory micro based on pre-college testing or other circumstances, but then you have to take an extra elective to fulfill the 12 credits required for the major.

Note 2: You are allowed to skip introductory micro even without pre-college testing, if you feel confident that you have enough background in microeconomics and can go straight to intermediate micro, but we recommend that you shop both courses before you make a decision.

Macro

Econ 111 or 116

Note 1: You can place out of introductory macro based on pre-college testing or other circumstances, but then you have to take an extra elective to fulfill the 12 credits required for the major.

Note 2: You are allowed to skip introductory macro even without pre-college testing, if you feel confident that you have enough background in macroeconomics and can go straight to intermediate macro, but we recommend that you shop both courses before you make a decision.

Core Courses

Micro

Econ 121 or 125

Macro

Econ 122 or 126

Econometrics

Econ 117 or Econ 123 or Econ 136

Note: No other course than the three listed above can fulfill the econometrics requirement, under any circumstances.

Field Courses

Four Electives

Typically you will need four elective courses. Any ECON course numbered 123 or above can count as an elective, if not already applied towards the core requirements.

If you skip or Cr/D/F an introductory course, you have to take an additional elective. 

With DUS approval, you can substitute one elective course with a non-ECON course that is related to economics (see section Courses/Related Course Credit for more details).

Senior Requirement

Two Advanced Courses

Two courses from Econ 400-491 must be completed, one of which must be taken in senior year.

Economics & Mathematics Course Requirements

To earn distinction in the major a student must write a senior thesis earning a grade of A- or better and receive A- or better in 3/4 of major courses. All courses beyond the introductory level in Mathematics and Economics are counted in the computation of grades for Distinction.

Below is a summary of the major requirements.

Prerequisites

Multivariate Calculus

MATH 120

With Math DUS permission, an upper level math course in the same area can substitute for MATH 120 (but such course will not count toward the total of 12 courses required for the major).

Micro

Econ 110 or 115

or

Higher level econ course

Macro

Econ 111 or 116

or

Higher level econ course

Economics Requirements

Micro

Econ 121

or

Econ 125*

*Econ 125 is recommended.

Macro

Econ 122

or

Econ 126*

*Econ 126 is recommended.

Mathematical Economics

Econ 350 or 417 or 433

and

Econ 351

Econometrics

Econ 135 and Econ 136*

* S&DS 241 and 242 may be taken in place of Econ 135. The two stats courses together would count as one credit toward the economics portion of the major.

Elective

You need to take at least one ECON elective (numbered 159 or above), in addition to the two mathematical economics courses.

If you skip or Cr/D/F an introductory course, you have to take an additional elective. 

With DUS approval, you can substitute one elective with a non-ECON course that is related to economics (see section Courses/Related Course Credit for more details).

Math Requirements

Linear Algebra

Students in the Class of 2025 and beyond need to take MATH 222 or 225 or 226.

Students in the Class of 2024 and previous classes may use MATH 231 (in place of MATH 222 or 225 or 226).

Analysis

Students in the Class of 2025 and beyond need to take Math 255 or 256.

Students in the Class of 2024 and previous classes may use MATH 300, 301 or 305 (in place of MATH 255 or MATH 256). 

Senior Seminar

Math 480 or 481

Electives

Two (2) math electives required (only one elective is necessary if two semester linear algebra sequence is taken)

Computer Science & Economics Course Requirements

Computer Science and Economics (CSEC) is an interdepartmental major for students interested in the theoretical and practical connections between computer science and economics. The Bachelor of Science in CSEC provides students with foundational knowledge of economics, computation, and data analysis, as well as hands-on experience with empirical analysis of economic data. It prepares students for professional careers that incorporate aspects of both economics and computer science and for academic careers conducting research in the overlap of the two fields. Topics in the overlap include market design, computational finance, economics of online platforms, machine learning, and social media.

Additional information can be found on the Yale College Programs of Study page.

Prerequisites

Prerequisite to this major is basic understanding of computer programming, discrete math, calculus, and economics. Grades of 4 or 5 on high-school AP computer science, statistics, calculus, microeconomics, and macroeconomics signal adequate preparation for required courses in the CSEC major. For students who have not taken these or equivalent courses in high school, the programming prerequisite may be satisfied with CPSC 100 or CPSC 112; the discrete mathematics prerequisite may be satisfied with CPSC 202 or MATH 244; the calculus prerequisite may be satisfied with MATH 112; the microeconomics prerequisite may be satisfied with ECON 110 or ECON 115; and the macroeconomics prerequisite may be satisfied with ECON 111 or ECON 116. Other courses may suffice, and students should consult the director of undergraduate studies (DUS) Philipp Strack and their academic advisers if they are unsure whether they have the prerequisite knowledge for a particular required course.

Major Requirements

The B.S. degree program requires successful completion of fourteen term courses (not including courses taken to satisfy prerequisites) and the senior project. Nine of the fourteen courses are listed below; the remaining five courses are electives. With permission of the DUS Philipp Strack and the academic adviser, a student may substitute a more advanced course in the same area as a required course. When a substitution is made, the advanced course counts toward the nine required courses and not toward the five electives.

The required courses include CPSC 201CPSC 223CPSC 323CPSC 365 or 366ECON 121 or 125; two courses in econometrics (ECON 117 and 123 or ECON 135 and 136); ECON 351; one course in the intersection of computer science and economics (e.g., CPSC 455, ECON 417, or ECON 433). With permission of the DUS Philipp StrackS&DS 241 and S&DS 242 may be taken instead of ECON 135.

Elective courses are essentially those courses that count as electives in the Computer Science major, the Economics major, or both. Exceptions are courses such as CPSC 455, ECON 417, and ECON 433 in the intersection of computer science and economics that count as electives in CPSC or ECON or both. At least one such course is required for CSEC, and students may not count the same course as an elective for CSEC. At least two electives must be taken in the CPSC department, and at least one must be taken in the ECON department. With the permission of the academic adviser, a student may use as the fourth and/or fifth elective one or two courses in related departments that do not usually serve as electives in CPSC or ECON.

Credit/D/Fail Courses taken Credit/D/Fail may not be counted toward the major.

Senior Requirement

In the senior year, each student must complete CSEC 491, a one-term independent-project course that explicitly combines both techniques and subject matter from computer science and economics. A project proposal must be approved by the student’s academic adviser and project adviser, and it must be signed by the DUS by the end of the third week of the term.

Distinction in the Major CSEC majors may earn Distinction in the Major if they receive grades of A or A– in at least three quarters of their courses in the major (not including courses taken to satisfy prerequisites), and their senior-project advisers determine that their senior projects are worthy of distinction. 

Advising

Approval of course schedules Students considering the major but not yet declared should arrange to meet with the DUS during the first week of the term to ensure that their proposed course schedules are appropriate. Similarly, declared majors should meet with their academic advisers during the first week of the term to ensure that they are on track to satisfy all of the requirements of the major. Course schedules must be signed by the DUS Philipp Strack each term, and they must be approved by an academic adviser before the DUS signs them.

Transfer credit Students who take a term abroad or take summer courses outside of Yale may petition the DUS to count at most two courses from outside Yale toward the requirements of the major. Students who take a year abroad may petition to count at most three courses. Many courses taken outside Yale do not meet the standards of the CSEC major; therefore, students should consult with their academic advisers and the DUS Philipp Strack before taking such courses. Courses taken outside Yale may not be counted toward the major requirements in intermediate microeconomics, econometrics, or the intersection of computer science and economics.